Document Type

Conference Paper

Publication Date


Publication Title

Proceedings of the 2010 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium



Conference Name

2010 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium, Bolton Landing, New York, April 11-13, 2010


The Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics (LNT) is a nonprofit educational organization that teaches skills and values for recreating responsibly in the out-of-doors. LNT developed Promoting Environmental Awareness in Kids (PEAK), based on seven ethical principles. The PEAK program provides a pack that contains several interactive activities specifically designed to educate children about the outdoors and the responsible use of shared public lands. While the PEAK program has been in existence for a number of years, the program’s effectiveness has not been empirically tested. Moreover, there is limited data regarding responsible environmental attitudes and behavior in elementary school-aged children. The focus of this study was to develop a scale to assess the educational impact of the PEAK program on children. The PEAK Assessment Scale (PAS) was pilot tested in the spring of 2010 to assess the psychometric properties. Results of the analysis indicated the scale was reliable (.77) and evidence supports that the scale is unidimensional.


"This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain."

Original Publication Citation

Miller, J., Brown, L., Hill, E., Shellman, A., Ramsing, R., & Gómez, E. (2012) Measuring the educational impact of Promoting Environmental Awareness in Kids (PEAK): The development and implementation of a new scale. In Fisher, C.L. & Watts, C. E., Jr. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2010 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 155-159). Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station.


0000-0002-3621-5666 (Hill)