Document Type

Conference Paper

Publication Date


Publication Title

Proceedings of the 2013 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium




Although urban adventure races (ARs) have grown in popularity, little research exists on the reasons for the rising interest. Typically, adventure races are defined as a series of outdoor tasks completed within a given course or timeframe that are meant to challenge individuals, both mentally and physically. ARs borrow much from adventure programming. Aspects of AR programming may include goal-setting, problem-solving activities, and processing, and is often theoretically driven. This study used Grounded Theory as a basis for exploring why participants choose ARs, and if motives vary by gender. Of the 60 questionnaires collected, 40 were suitable for data analysis. We explored values associated with participating in an AR and gender. By using a modified laddering technique, the two identified values were "to become healthy," and "to focus on their health." Gender differences were also found.


"This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain."

Original Publication Citation

Hill, E., Gómez, E., Brinkley, B., & Goldenberg, M. (2013). Urban adventure racing: Using grounded theory to assess motives. Paper presented at the 2013 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium, Cooperstown, New York, April 7-9, 2013.


0000-0002-3621-5666 (Hill)