Instructional Message Design, Volume 2

Document Type


Publication Date

Fall 2022

Publication Title

Instructional Message Design: Theory, Research, and Practice (Volume 2)


28 pp.


Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are appealing to higher education institutions, as they consider MOOCs a way to reach a large, varied group of students. With a completion rate of less than 10%, however, institutions struggle to maintain MOOCs (Major, 2016). While there is little to no cost for students to enroll in them, the cost for the institution to develop and maintain MOOCs can be high from a time and resource perspective. Improving student motivation and interaction in MOOCs may impact completion rates. Designers of MOOCs could leverage instructional message design strategies to improve social presence, and as a result, also improve motivation and interaction.


Rights: CC BY-NC-ND: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs