Document Type


Publication Date




Publication Title

Journal of Advanced Transportation




3927268 (1-9)


With the growth in global trade and its environmental footprint, sustainable modes of freight movement are increasingly important in today’s globalized world. This study focuses on on-dock rail, where the rail terminal is located within the marine container terminal. On-dock rail has in recent years become an essential mode of transportation to move containers out of congested marine container terminals. This study contributes to the literature by presenting tailored exact solution algorithms for a recently proposed optimization model to optimize the loading of double-stack trains. In particular, a 3-stage solution framework is presented for the case when rail cars have a single well. A complementary solution algorithm for the case when a rail car has multiple wells is also provided. Our results show that computational times can be drastically reduced, from 2+ hours to a matter of seconds, rendering the model suitable for practical use.


© 2022 ManWo Ng and Dung-Ying Lin.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Original Publication Citation

Ng, M., & Lin, D.-Y. (2022). Exact algorithms for practical instances of the railcar loading problem at marine container terminals. Journal of Advanced Transportation, 2022, 1-9, Article 3927268.