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Publication Date




Publication Title







536 (1-25)


This study presents an optimization of the process parameters for the effect of copper (Cu) donor material percentage on the friction stir welding (FSW) of AA6061-T6 alloy. Extensive factorial experiments were conducted to determine the significance of the rotational speed (ω), the transverse speed (v), the interface coefficient of friction (μ), and the Cu donor material percentage in the plunge, left, right, and downstream zones. Design Expert 13 software was used to identify the number of simulation experiments to be conducted using the Abaqus simulation software. From Design Expert 13, which is a thorough multi-objective optimization analysis software, we were able to identify ideal welding parameters such as a rotational speed of 1222 rpm, transverse speed of 1.1 mm/s, the coefficient of friction of 0.9, and a 19% donor material percentage for the plunge zone. Significant findings demonstrate that increasing the Cu donor material substantially reduced the temperature from 502 °C to 134 °C when the Cu content is increased from 0% to 50%. This integrated modeling and optimization approach provides a practical procedure to identify the best experimental parameters for the process and a new understanding to guide advances for high-quality FSW of aluminum alloys. This work offers a methodology for optimizing the FSW parameters aligned with multifaceted thermomechanical physics.


© 2024 by the authors.

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.

Data Availability

Article states: "The data presented in this study are available upon request from the corresponding author."

Original Publication Citation

Al-Allaq, A. H., Maniscalco, J., Bhukya, S. N., Wu, Z., & Elmustafa, A. (2024). Parametric optimization of friction stir welding of AA6061-T6 samples using the copper donor stir-assisted material method. Metals, 14(5), 1-25, Article 536.


0000-0002-0415-2795 (Al-Allaq), 0000-0001-5865-6035 (Elmustafa)