Physics of Fluids
The variational principle of Hamilton is applied to develop an analytical formulation to describe the volume viscosity in fluids. The procedure described here differs from those used in the past in that a dissipative process is represented by the chemical affinity and progress variable (sometimes called "order parameter") of a reacting species. These state variables appear in the variational integral in two places: first, in the expression for the internal energy, and second, in a subsidiary condition accounting for the conservation of the reacting species. As a result of the variational procedure, two dissipative terms appear in the Navier-Stokes equation. The first is the traditional volume viscosity term, proportional to the dilatational component of velocity; the second term is proportional to the material time derivative of the pressure gradient. Values of the respective volume viscosity coefficients are determined by applying the resulting volume-viscous Navier-Stokes equation to the case of acoustical propagation and then comparing expressions for the dispersion and absorption of sound. The formulation includes the special case of equilibration of the translational degrees of freedom. As examples, values are tabulated for dry and humid air, argon, and sea water. © 2006 American Institute of Physics.
Original Publication Citation
Zuckerwar, A. J., & Ash, R. L. (2006). Variational approach to the volume viscosity of fluids. Physics of Fluids, 18(4), 047101. doi:10.1063/1.2180780
Zuckerwar, Allan J. and Ash, Robert L., "Variational Approach to the Volume Viscosity of Fluids" (2006). Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications. 21.