(First paragraph) The development of three-dimensional culture scaffolds represents a revolutionary step forward for in vitro culture systems. Various synthetic and naturally occurring substrates have been developed that support 3D growth of cells. In most fields, including mammary gland biology and tumorigenesis, the two most common substrates used are the basement membrane rich extracellur matrix (ECM) isolated from EngelbrethHolm-Swarm (EHS) mouse sarcomas (e.g. Matrigel) and collagen extracted from rat-tails. The processes of 3D culture in these two substrates has remained unchanged for nearly half a century: cells are either mixed with unpolymerized matrix to disperse them randomly throughout the substrate upon polymerization or overlaid randomly on top of a preformed hydrogel. While effective in generating organoid/tumoroid structures, the random nature of these processes has many drawbacks that limit the reproducibility and tunability of the experimental design. Furthermore, random cellular distributions limit the utility of these substrates for studying interactions within the cellular microenvironment, which have been shown to be critical for the control of stem and cancer cell function .
0000-0003-3329-9478 (Bruno), 0000-0003-2989-1292 (Reid), 0000-0002-0871-6789 (Sachs)
Original Publication Citation
Bruno, R. D., Reid, J., & Sachs, P. C. (2019). The revolution will be open-source: how 3D bioprinting can change 3D cell culture. Oncotarget, 10(46), 4724-4726. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.27099
Bruno, Robert D.; Reid, John; and Sachs, Patrick C., "The Revolution Will Be Open-Source: How 3D Bioprinting Can Change 3D Cell Culture" (2019). Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications. 40.