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This major revision to the Code of Best Practice (COBP) for C2 Assessment is the product of a NATO Research and Technology Organisation (RTO) sponsored Research Group (SAS-026). It represents over a decade of work by many of the best analysts from the NATO countries. A symposium (SAS-039) was hosted by the NATO Consultation Command Control Agency (NC3A) that provided the venue for a rigorous peer review of the code. This new version of the COBP for C2 assessment builds upon the initial version of the COBP produced by SAS-002. The earlier version focused on the analysis of ground forces at a tactical echelon in mid- to high-intensity conflicts. In developing this new version of the COBP, SAS-026 focused on a changed geopolitical context characterized by a shift from preoccupation with a war involving NATO and the Warsaw Pact to concern for a broad range of smaller military conflicts and Operations Other Than War (OOTW). This version also takes into account the impact of significantly improved information-related capabilities and their implications for reducing the fog and friction traditionally associated with conflict. Significantly reduced levels of fog and friction offer an opportunity for the military to develop new concepts of operations, new organizational forms, and new approaches to C2, as well as to the processes that support it. In addition, SAS-026 was cognizant that NATO operations are likely to include coalitions of the willing that might involve Partnership for Peace (PfP) nations, other partners outside of NATO, international organizations, and NGOs. Cost analyses continue to be excluded because they differ among NATO members, so no single approach would be appropriate. Advances in technology are expected to continue at an increasing rate and spur both sustaining and disruptive innovation in military organizations. It is to be expected that this COBP will need to be periodically revisited in light of these developments.

Publication Date





Washington, D.C.


NATO, Command and control systems, System analysis, Limited warfare, NATO forces


Military and Veterans Studies | Operational Research


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NATO Code of Best Practice for C2 Assessment

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