Document Type

Conference Paper

Publication Date




Conference Name

Spring Simulation Interoperability Workshop, Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization


The Coalition Battle Management Language is a language for representing and exchanging plans, orders, and reports across live, constructive and robotic forces in multi-service, multi-national and multi-organizational operations. Standardization efforts in the Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization seek to define this language through three parallel activities: (1) specify a sufficient data model to unambiguously define a set of orders using the Joint Command, Control, and Consultation Information Exchange Data Model (JC3IEDM) as a starting point; (2) develop a formal grammar (lexicon and production rules) to formalize the definition of orders, requests, and reports; (3) develop a formal battle management ontology to enable conceptual interoperability across software systems. This paper focuses on the third activity, development of a formal battle management ontology, by describing an ontology space for potential technical approaches. An ontology space is a notional three dimensional space with qualitative axes representing: (1) the Ontological Spectrum; (2) the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model; and (3) candidate representation sources that can contribute to conceptual interoperability for the Coalition Battle Management Language. The first dimension is the Ontological Spectrum, which shows increasing levels of semantic formalism using various ontology representation artifacts. The second dimension is the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model, which describes varying levels of interoperability that can be attained across systems. The third dimension is a survey of likely candidate sources to provide the representation elements required for interoperability. This third dimension will be further described in relation to the artifact capabilities of the second dimension and the conceptual interoperability capabilities of the first dimension to highlight what is possible for ontological representation in C-BML with existing sources, and what needs to be added. The paper identifies requirements for building the ontology artifacts (starting with a controlled vocabulary) for conceptual interoperability, the highest level described in the LCIM, and gives a path ahead for increasingly logical artifacts.


This publication is a work of the U.S. Government as defined in Title 17, United States Code, Section 101. As such, it is in the public domain, and under the provisions of Title 17, United States Code, Section 105, may not be copyrighted.

Original Publication Citation

Turnitsa, C., Blais, C., & Tolk, A. (2007). Filling the Ontology Space for Coalition Battle Management Language. Paper presented at the Spring Simulation Interoperability Workshop, Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization, Norfolk, VA.


0000-0001-5567-7594 (Turnitsa, Charles), 0000-0002-4201-8757 (Tolk, Andreas)