Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Ocean & Earth Sciences



Committee Director

Dennis A. Darby

Committee Member

Ali Norwroozi

Committee Member

G. Richard Whittecar

Call Number for Print

Special Collections LD4331.G4F72


This study examines Pliocene-Pleistocene lithostratigraphy and the Yorktown unconformity within the Dismal Swamp by means of remote sensing analysis, Wyrobek-Gardner seismic refraction profiling and split-spoon coring. Pre-Sangamon fluvial/tidal channel deposits are not present and the Yorktown unconformity dips irregularly southeastward at 0.35 meters/kilometer (2 feet/mile) from a high at 4 meters above sea level to a low of -1 meter (+12 to -2 ft) below sea level. The marker velocity for the Yorktown Formation is 1600 mps (5250 fps) and regression of seismic depths of the Yorktown Formation with corresponding split-spoon depths yields a high correlation. Short line upper layer velocity (V0) analysis along seismic profiles is necessary to prevent errors caused by lateral overburden velocity variation. Configuration of the base of the Dismal Swamp Peat can be analyzed by V0 velocities and the lack of a Plio-Pleistocene paleo-Susquehanna River in the area is enforced by a topographic east-west high on the Yorktown unconformity along the northern boundary of the Dismal Swamp. Lake Drummond lies in a shallow depression on the Yorktown unconformity fanned by the convergence of southeast and northeast dips of the unconformity and is an area groundwater and surface drainage accumulation.


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