Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy


15 pp.


[From introductory section]

Typically, a logic consists of a formal or informal language together with a deductive system and/or a model-theoretic semantics. The language has components that correspond to a part of a natural language like English or Greek. The deductive system is to capture, codify, or simply record arguments that are valid for the given language, and the semantics is to capture, codify, or record the meanings, or truth-conditions for at least part of the language.

The following sections provide the basics of a typical logic, sometimes called “classical elementary logic” or “classical first-order logic”....


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Original Publication Citation

Shapiro, S., & Kissel, T. K. (2018). Classical Logic. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from


0000-0001-6519-1723 (Kouri Kissel)