Date of Award

Fall 12-2021

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



Committee Director

Jean R. Delayen

Committee Member

Geoffrey A. Krafft

Committee Member

Riad Suleiman

Committee Member

Sebastian E. Kuhn

Committee Member

Helmut Baumgart


Magnetized electron cooling of the ion beam is one of the major approaches towards obtaining the required high luminosity in the proposed Electron-Ion Collider (EIC). To increase the cooling efficiency, a bunched electron beam with a high bunch charge and high repetition rate is required. However, these features can combine to enhance the collective interactions, such as the space charge effect. A magnetized electron beam was successfully generated at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) using a compact, 300 kV DC high voltage photo-gun with an inverted insulator geometry and bi-alkali antimonide photocathode. The beam magnetization was characterized using a modest diagnostic beamline to measure beam sizes, rotation angles, and normalized transverse emittance as a function of magnetic field at the photocathode, laser spot size, and gun high-voltage. Simultaneously, simulations were performed using the A Space Charge Tracking Algorithm (ASTRA) and General Particle Tracer (GPT) programs. Further, sustained high average current magnetized beam up to 28 mA was demonstrated, and the photocathode lifetime for different magnetized electron beam currents was investigated. In the second part of the project, the space charge effect in low-energy magnetized electron beams was studied and compared with GPT simulations. The high bunch charge studies showed evidence of space charge current limitations starting at 0.3 nC and limited the maximum delivered bunch charge to 0.7 nC. To reach the high bunch charge goal of a few nC, the existing DC photo-gun design was modified using CST Studio Suite’s electromagnetic field solver, and a way to cancel the beam deflection exerted by the non-symmetric nature of the inverted insulator photo-gun geometry was discovered. This thesis presents a detailed description of the generation, characterization, and simulation of high current, high bunch charge magnetized electron beams at JLab, as well as the modified photo-gun design. Together with measurements and simulations, the purpose of this thesis is to provide a solid background on the theoretical aspects and the experimental challenges associated with magnetized electron beams for accelerator applications.


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