Date of Award

Spring 5-2022

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)




Atomic, Molecular & Optical Physics

Committee Director

Charles Sukenik

Committee Member

Robert Ash

Committee Member

Peter Bernath

Committee Member

Desmond Cook

Committee Member

Alexander Gurevich


Metastable production of noble gases requires significant energy due to their filled valence shells. These transitions from the ground state are in the vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet, which are relatively inaccessible to lasers. This necessitates the use of either electron/ion bombardment via inefficient glow discharges or the use of high-power lasers and nonlinear processes. The all-optical production efficiency using these high-power lasers promises to be orders of magnitude higher than glow discharges, but far more costly. This work looks to improve all-optical production of metastable krypton (Kr*) through the use of a commercially available vacuum ultraviolet lamp with a low-power diode laser coupled to a power build-up cavity to excite two resonant transitions, and to leverage this excitation scheme in the study of producing a diode-pumped rare gas laser. The data obtained in this work show similar production rates to comparable, state-of-the-art work done by Z.T. Lu of Hefei National Laboratory, around 1010-1011 atoms/s for 84Kr, while using a lower-powered laser and a lower-flux lamp. These data show all-optical production to be comparable to the production rates of discharge-based production of Kr* but offer more scalability than glow discharges and eliminate the contamination caused by plasma-embedded Kr sputtering from chamber walls.


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