Date of Award

Fall 12-2022

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)




Accelerator Science

Committee Director

Gianluigi Ciovati

Committee Member

Jean Delayen

Committee Member

Alexander Gurevich

Committee Member

Amaryan Moskov

Committee Member

Sylvain Marsillac


Superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities are one of the fundamental building blocks of modern particle accelerators. To achieve the highest quality factors (1010-1011), SRF cavities are operated at liquid helium temperatures. Magnetic flux trapped on the surface of SRF cavities during cool-down below the critical temperature is one of the leading sources of residual RF losses. Instruments capable of detecting the distribution of trapped flux on the cavity surface are in high demand in order to better understand its relation to the cavity material, surface treatments and environmental conditions. We have designed, developed, and commissioned two novel diagnostic tools to measure the distribution of trapped flux at the surface of SRF cavities. One is a magnetic field scanning system (MFSS) which uses cryogenic Hall probes and anisotropic magnetoresistance sensors that fit the contour of a 1.3 GHz cavity. The second setup is a stationary, combined magnetic and temperature mapping system which uses AMR sensors and carbon resistor temperature sensors, covering the surface of a 3 GHz SRF cavity. The MFSS system revealed a non-uniform distribution of trapped flux on the cavities’ surface, dependent on the magnitude of the applied magnetic field during field-cooling below the critical temperature. The MFSS shows that magnetic field scanning as a function of the RF field indicates redistribution of trapped flux at some locations. About ∼ 33% of hot-spots observed by temperature mapping during high power RF tests overlapped with the high B-field spots. Almost all high B-field spots observed after field-cool were found to be overlapped on grain boundaries. A clear correlation between the hot- spot formed after quench and local trapped flux was found, providing insight on the RF dissipation of trap vortices. The combined B&T map system showed that the T-map system is capable of detecting hot-spots and quench location on the surface of the 3 GHz SRF cavity. Different distribution of trapped flux was measured after different cool-down and residual B-field, but, no variation in magnetic field distribution was observed during quench, possibly due to magnetic sensors being far from the quench location.


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Copyright, 2022, by Ishwari Prasad Parajuli, All Rights Reserved.