Date of Award

Fall 2023

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



Committee Director

Todd J. Satogata

Committee Member

S. Alex Bogacz

Committee Member

Geoffrey A. Krafft

Committee Member

Hani El-Sayed Ali

Committee Member

Helmut Baumgart


Energy recovery linacs (ERLs), focus on recycling the kinetic energy of electron beam for the purpose of accelerating a newly injected beam within the same accelerating structure. The rising developments in the super conducting radio frequency technology, ERL technology has achieved several noteworthy milestones over the past few decades. In year 2003, Jefferson Lab has successfully demonstrated a single pass energy recovery at the CEBAF accelerator. Furthermore, they conducted successful experiments with IR-FEL demo and upgrades, as well as the UV FEL driver. This multi-pass, multi-GeV range energy recovery demonstration proposed to be carried out at CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab focuses on demonstrating highest energy recovery in super conducting linac in the low-current range. Continuous electron beam accelerate up to 7.5 GeV within 5-passes and decelerate in the next 5-passes recovering RF energy and dumps at a low energy dump. The beamline optics design for recirculating linacs require special attention to avoid beam instabilities due to RF wakefields. Usually, multi-pass linac beam lines require stronger focusing at lower energies as that is necessary to avoid beam breakup (BBU) instabilities, even with this small beam current. The CEBAF linac optics optimization is focused on balancing over-focusing at higher energies and beta excursions at lower energies. The race-track-shaped geometry of CEBAF accelerator allows its linacs to accommodate multiple energy beams simultaneously, while individual recirculating arcs transporting one beam energy, are shared between accelerating/ decelerating beams. For the linac optics optimization process, an extended strategy is used that is originally used in 6-pass Recirculating Linac design of the LHeC, to represent the ten passes through a single linac. Using proper mathematical expressions, linac optics optimization can be achieved with evolutionary genetic algorithms, with Multi-Objective optimization. This thesis introduces a CEBAF optics redesign tailored to accommodates the ER@CEBAF multi-pass ER scheme. The isochronous arcs were retuned to match into optics solutions for optimized 10-pass linacs. Within this work, a single bunch particle tracking analysis presented here focuses on the further improvements of the beamline and beam transportation.


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