Date of Award

Spring 2024

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



Committee Director

Sebastian E. Kuhn

Committee Member

Stephen Bueltmann

Committee Member

Ted Rogers

Committee Member

Geoffrey A. Krafft

Committee Member

Sylvain Marsillac


A suite of experiments measuring target-spin observables in electron-nucleon scattering (dubbed Run Group C) was conducted at Jefferson Lab’s Hall B in Newport News, VA with a new polarized nuclear target known as ‘APOLLO’ (Ammonia Polarized Longitudinally). This innovative target is engineered to seamlessly integrate with the advanced 12 GeV CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) accelerator and the Hall B CLAS12 (12 GeV CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer) detector array. The ‘APOLLO’ target harnesses the power of Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) to achieve longitudinal polarization of solid ammonia, thereby creating a net polarization in both protons (NH3) and deuterons (ND3). These samples are subjected to a 5 Tesla magnetic field produced by the CLAS12 spectrometer central solenoid, cooled to 1 K using helium evaporation, and subsequently exposed to microwave radiation at a frequency of 140 GHz. This project was made possible through a collaborative partnership between the Jefferson Lab Target Group, Old Dominion University, University of Virginia, Christopher Newport University, and the CLAS Collaboration. Integrating the APOLLO target into CLAS12 presented unique challenges because of its specific spatial and dimensional constraints. This dissertation will highlight the innovative solutions developed to address these challenges, including the creation of a new target material transport system, the incorporation of superconducting magnetic correction coils, and the development of a customized Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) system. In addition to a detailed description of the development and operation of APOLLO, and an overview of RGC, this document also describes the global data fitting of proton asymmetries in the Deep Inelastic scattering (DIS) and the Resonance regions, and it offers insights into the comprehensive analysis of target polarization data.


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