Document Type


Publication Date




Publication Title

Journal of Instrumentation






P09040 (1-50)


C3 is an opportunity to realize an e+e- collider for the study of the Higgs boson at √s = 250 GeV, with a well defined upgrade path to 550 GeV while staying on the same short facility footprint [2,3]. C3 is based on a fundamentally new approach to normal conducting linear accelerators that achieves both high gradient and high efficiency at relatively low cost. Given the advanced state of linear collider designs, the key system that requires technical maturation for C3 is the main linac. This paper presents the staged approach towards a facility to demonstrate C3 technology with both Direct (source and main linac) and Parallel (beam delivery, damping ring, ancillary component) R&D.

The primary goal of the C3 Demonstration R&D Plan is to reduce technical and cost risk by building and operating the key components of C3 at an adequate scale. This R&D plan starts with the engineering design, and demonstration of one cryomodule and will culminate in the construction of a 3 cryomodule linac with pre-production prototypes. This R&D program would also demonstrate the linac rf fundamentals including achievable gradient and gradient stability over a full electron bunch train and breakdown rates. It will also investigate beam dynamics including energy spread, wakefields, and emittance growth. This work will be critical to confirm the suitability of the C3 beam parameters for the physics reach and detector performance in preparation for a Conceptual Design Report (CDR), as well as for follow-on technology development and industrialization.

The C3 Demonstration R&D Plan will open up significant new scientific and technical opportunities based on development of high-gradient and high-efficiency accelerator technology. It will push this technology to operate both at the GeV scale and mature the technology to be reliable and provide high-brightness electron beams.

The timeline for progressing with C3 technology development will be governed by practical limitations on both the technical progress and resource availability. It consists of four stages: Stage 0) Ongoing fundamental R&D on structure prototypes, damping and vibrations. Stage 1) Advancing the engineering maturity of the design and developing start-to-end simulations including space-charge and wakefield effects. This stage will include testing of strucutres operating at cryogenic temperatures. Beam tests would be performed with high beam current to test full beam loading. Stage 2) Production and testing of the first cryomodule at cryogenic temperatures. This would provide sufficient experimental data to compile a CDR and it is anticipated for Stage 2 to last 3 years and to culminate with the transport of photo-electrons through the first cryomodule. Stage 3) Updates to the engineering design of the cryomodules, production of the second and third cryomodule and their installation. Lower charge and lower emittance beams will be used to investigate emittance growth. The successful full demonstration of the 3 cryomodules to deliver up to a 3 GeV beam and achieve the C3five gradient will allow a comprehensive and robust evaluation of the technical design of C3 as well as mitigate technical, schedule, and cost risks required to proceed with a Technical Design Report (TDR).


© 2023 The Authors.

Published by IOP publishing Ltd on behalf of Sissa Medialab. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the authors and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

Original Publication Citation

Nanni, E. A., Breidenbach, M., Li, Z., Vernieri, C., Wang, F., White, G., Bai, M., Belomestnykh, S., Bhat, P., Barklow, T., Berg, W. J., Borzenets, V., Byrd, J., Dhar, A., Dhuley, R. C., Doss, C., Duris, J., Edelen, A., Emma, C., . . . Wootton, K. P. (2023). Status and future plans for C3 R&D. Journal of Instrumentation, 18(9), 1-50, Article P09040.