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4058 (12 pages)


There is limited research in land surface temperatures (LST) simulation using image fusion techniques, especially studies addressing the downscaling effect of LST image fusion. LST simulation and associated downscaling effect can potentially benefit the thermal studies requiring both high spatial and temporal resolutions. This study simulated LSTs based on observed Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST imagery with Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model, and investigated the downscaling effect of LST image fusion at 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 250, 500, and 1000 m spatial resolutions. The study area partially covered the City of Los Angeles, California, USA, and surrounding areas. The reference images (observed ASTER and MODIS LST imagery) were acquired on 04/03/2007 and 07/01/2007, with simulated LSTs produced for 4/28/2007. Three image resampling methods (Cubic Convolution, Bilinear Interpolation, and Nearest Neighbor) were used during the downscaling and upscaling processes, and the resulting LST simulations were compared. Results indicated that the observed ASTER LST and simulated ASTER LST images (date 04/28/2007, spatial resolution 90 m) had high agreement in terms of spatial variations and basic statistics based on a comparison between the observed and simulated ASTER LST maps. Urban developed lands possessed higher LSTs with lighter tones and mountainous areas showed dark tones with lower LSTs. The Cubic Convolution and Bilinear Interpolation resampling methods yielded better results over Nearest Neighbor resampling method across the scales from 15 to 1000 m. The simulated LSTs with image fusion can be used as valuable inputs in heat related studies that require frequent LST measurements with fine spatial resolutions, e.g., seasonal movements of urban heat islands, monthly energy budget assessment, and temperature-driven epidemiology. The observation of scale-independency of the proposed image fusion method can facilitate with image selections of LST studies at various locations.


© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

Original Publication Citation

Liu, H., & Weng, Q. (2018). Scaling effect of fused ASTER-MODIS land surface temperature in an urban environment. Sensors, 18(11), 4058. doi:10.3390/s18114058