Date of Award

Spring 2007

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



Committee Director

Debra A. Major

Committee Member

Alexis Fink

Committee Member

Michelle Kelley

Committee Member

Janis Sanchez


The salience of one's ethnic identity, the subjective importance of that identity in one's life, was hypothesized to impact the extent to which inclusion predicts work-related outcomes (i.e., strain-based work-family conflict, work-family enrichment, job satisfaction and job stress) among 225 working women. Women who felt included at work (i.e., those who can participate, have influence and can "be themselves") were predicted to experience positive work-related outcomes. Further, belongingness at work was predicted to interact with ethnic identity salience to impact work-related outcomes for working women. Hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated that inclusion was significantly associated with positive work-related outcomes; yet, there was no support (with one exception) for ethnic identity salience as a predictor of these outcomes, neither as a main effect nor as a moderator. After controlling for belongingness at work, ethnic identity salience did significantly predict ethnic identity nonacceptance (a facet of job stress) among minority women. Possible limitations of this research, suggestions for future research, and implications for employers are discussed. Contributions made by this research include (a) introduction of an identity theory framework for exploring work-family issues, (b) illustration of the importance of linking internal identities and their subjective importance or salience to external roles, (c) utilization of a broader definition and measurement tool for ethnic and gender stressors at work, and (d) demonstration of new links between workplace inclusion and work-family outcomes (i.e., strain-based work-family conflict and work-family enrichment) among working women.