Date of Award

Summer 2002

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



Committee Director

Debra A. Major

Committee Member

Terry L. Dickinson

Committee Member

Adair Heyl

Committee Member

Janis Sanchez


There is growing interest in the concept of inclusion by both scientists and practitioners. The goal of the current study was to bring empirical support to the organizational inclusion literature. Inclusion was defined as a psychosocial need and a model was developed specifying its relationship to antecedent and consequence variables. The measurement model was explored with a sample of responses from 418 undergraduate students (Study 1). The measurement model was confirmed and the structural model was assessed with a sample of responses from 609 employees of a medical center (Study 2). Results of structural equation modeling provided limited support for the inclusion construct and poor support for the proposed measurement and structural models. While results supported the existence of an inclusive construct, there was little support for the efficacy of inclusion to understand attitudes in the context of organizations. Limitations of the present study and suggestions for future research are discussed.


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