Date of Award
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)
Virginia Consortium Program in Clinical Psychology
Two competing sets of hypotheses about the relations of self-criticism and dependency to depressive symptomatology were tested. Blatt's theory (1974, 2004) states that self-criticism and dependency are separate and distinct personality traits that predispose individuals to depression. Hypotheses from Blatt's theory were that self-criticism and dependency each explain unique variance in depressive symptomatology beyond that explained by the other. In contrast, Greenberg and Watson (2006) theorize that dependency underlies self-criticism in predisposing individuals to depression. Hypotheses from Greenberg and Watson's theory were that self-criticism and dependency are both correlated with depressive symptomatology, that self-criticism is correlated with dependency, that self-criticism explains unique variance in depressive symptomatology beyond that explained by dependency, and that dependency becomes a nonsignificant predictor of depressive symptomatology when controlling for self-criticism. A sample of 154 female and 142 male undergraduates completed the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire, which assesses self-criticism and dependency, and completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II 10 weeks later. Preliminary analyses indicated that the dependency construct should be measured with the Neediness subfactor of the DEQ Dependency measure and that there were no gender interactions in tests of the hypotheses. Results supported all of the hypotheses based on Greenberg and Watson's theory and did not support Blatt's hypothesis that dependency explains unique variance in depressive symptomatology beyond that explained by self-criticism. Limitations of the present study and its implications for future research are discussed.
Canose, David B..
"Relations of Self-Criticism and Dependency to Depressive Symptomatology: Tests of Blatt's and Greenberg and Watson's Theories"
(2011). Doctor of Psychology (PsyD), Dissertation, Psychology, Old Dominion University, DOI: 10.25776/v99y-bh49