Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)




Industrial/Organizational Psychology

Committee Director

Terry L. Dickinson

Committee Member

Glynn D. Coates

Committee Member

Robert M. McIntyre

Committee Member

Roy Yarbrough


A game simulation consisting of game segments filmed from two camera angles, a behavioral event interview (BEI), a written test, and a physical performance test battery were compared for testing college soccer referees as linesmen. A content-oriented strategy (Alba & Dickinson, 1985) was used to prepare the tests. Sixty-one referees from two testing sites were assigned to one of two conditions of physical demand and one of three experience groups. Strong evidence of criterion-related validity was found for the game simulation from the press box camera angle when game simulation scores were compared with peer ratings and assessment scores. Mixed results were found for measures of construct validity. Although some encouraging results were found, convergent and discriminant validity were low. Method bias was low except in the high experience group, where method bias was moderate. The effects of testing site and physical demand on game simulation score were not significant. The effects of experience and camera angle were significant. Game simulation scores from the press box camera angle increased with total senior level soccer experience. Comparisons of the tests showed that the testing of linesmen can be best accomplished with a combination of methods that includes the game simulation, the BEI, a written test about fouls and misconduct, and a physical performance test. Results also showed that scoring the game simulation was not influenced by the soccer-related experience of the scorers. Questionnaires were used to assess the acceptability of the game simulation, the BEI, and the written tests. All three were generally acceptable to the participants, but the BEI was significantly more acceptable than the game simulation. The combined evidence from this research suggests that the content-oriented strategy produced valid, reliable, and acceptable tests of linesman performance


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