Date of Award

Summer 2018

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



Committee Director

Jennifer Flaherty

Committee Director

Richard Handel

Committee Member

Kyunghee Han

Committee Member

Desideria Hacker

Committee Member

Barbara Winstead


The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory – Adolescents – Restructured Form (MMPI-A-RF; Archer, Handel, Ben-Porath, & Tellegen, 2016) is a newly developed instrument in personality and psychopathology and has been translated into many different languages, including the Korean language (University of Minnesota Press, 2016). Due to the cultural differences between Korean and American populations, it is important that constructs measured in the MMPI-A-RF are interpretable across cultures. Focusing on the Externalizing Scales, the present study used multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) to examine the measurement invariance in Korean and American adolescent normative samples. Partially supporting the hypothesis, the results showed that partial factorial invariance was achieved in four out of the six Externalizing Scales. Noninvariant items of each scale were also identified and cultural differences and implications were discussed. This study expanded the literature on the psychometric properties of the MMPI-A-RF and identified whether any discrepancies between samples reflected true cultural differences, or measurement bias.


The VIRGINIA CONSORTIUM PROGRAM IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY is a joint program of Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk State University, and Old Dominion University.


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