Document Type


Publication Date




Publication Title

Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications




101011 (1-12)


BACKGROUND: Military service puts service members at risk for moral injury. Moral injury is an array of symptoms (e.g., guilt, shame, anger) that develop from events that violate or transgress one's moral code.

OBJECTIVE: We describe adaption of in-person mindfulness training program, Mindfulness to Manage Chronic Pain (MMCP), to address symptoms of moral injury to be delivered live via the web. We discuss how we will assess benchmarks (i.e., recruitment, credibility and acceptability, completion rates, and adherence) of the Mindfulness to Manage Moral Injury (MMMI) program.

METHODS: Aim 1: To develop and then adapt the MMCP program based on feedback from experts and veterans who took part in Study 1. Aim 2: To develop an equally intensive facilitator-led online Educational Support (ES) program to serve as a comparison intervention and conduct a run-through of each program with 20 veterans (10 MMMI; 10 ES). Aim 3: To conduct a small-scale randomized controlled trial (N = 42 veterans; 21 MMMI; 21 ES) in which we will collect pre-post-test and weekly benchmark data for both refined intervention arms.

RESULTS: Study 1 and 2 are completed. Data collection for Study 3 will be completed in 2022.

CONCLUSION: MMMI is designed to provide a live facilitated mindfulness program to address symptoms of moral injury. If Study 3 demonstrates good benchmarks, with additional large-scale testing, MMMI may be a promising treatment that can reach veterans who may not seek traditional VAMC care and/or who prefer a web-based program.

Data Availability

Article States: No data was used for the research described in this paper.

Original Publication Citation

Kelley, M. L., Strowger, M., Chentsova, V. O., Bravo, A. J., Gaylord, S. A., Burgin, E. E., Vinci, C., Ayers, K. L., & Agha, E. (2022). Mindfulness to Manage Moral Injury: Rationale and development of a live online 7-week group intervention for veterans with moral injury. Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications, 30, 1-12, Article 101011.


0000-0003-3643-0419 (Kelley), 0000-0002-8476-5099 (Strowger)