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Journal of Personnel Psychology


In the first meta-analysis of the PERMA well-being framework (i.e., positive emotions, engagement, positive relationships, meaning, accomplishment), we cumulated 692 effect sizes (k = 33 independent samples, N = 10,050 workers). Average reliability did not meet the conventional ɑ = .70 threshold for engagement measured with the PERMA-Profiler or the Workplace PERMA Profiler or for negative emotions measured with the former. Overall, PERMA dimensions were strongly intercorrelated, and model comparisons suggested multidimensionality. We also summarized PERMA’s relationships with some conceptual antecedents (conscientiousness, loneliness); correlates (happiness, negative emotions); and outcomes (physical health, depressive symptoms, overall job performance). Additionally, we used dominance analysis to examine PERMA dimensions’ incremental validity. Although the framework holds promise for organizational research, PERMA measurement must be refined.


This is the author(s) pre-print of an article in press.

This version of the article may not completely replicate the final authoritative version published in Journal of Personnel Psychology at It is not the version of record and is therefore not suitable for citation.

Original Publication Citation

Jimenez, W. P., Hu, X., Garden, R. & Zeytonli, A. (in press). The potential and peculiarities of PERMA: A meta-analysis of two well-being measures with working samples. Journal of Personnel Psychology.


0000-0003-1141-4631 (Jimenez)