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Publication Date




Publication Title

Alcohol: Clinical and Experimental Research








As rates of students using cannabis continue to rise, simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis (such that their effects overlap; commonly referred to as simultaneous alcohol and marijuana [SAM] use) is prevalent among college students who use both substances. Although research focusing on SAM use and related cognitions and consequences continues to grow, there are no common established measures, as approaches vary across studies. This narrative review identifies current methods for assessing SAM use and measures of SAM-related consequences and cognitions (motives and expectancies) among college students, evaluates how they were developed, identifies gaps in the literature, and provides recommendations for future directions of assessment. We conclude that the assessment of SAM use is limited by difficulties in the assessment of cannabis quantity and potency. However, and the lack of a psychometrically validated measure of SAM consequences. However, measures of SAM motives and expectancies have been published with support from psychometric examinations such as exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and measurement invariance. Research is needed that incorporates qualitative approaches in the development of SAM use measures so that unique items specific to SAM use rather than single-substance use can be identified. Additionally, validation of these measures is needed across different samples that vary demographically, such as by race and gender or sex. Future research should consider the development of a measure of protective behavioral strategies specific to SAM use to inform interventions that target the reduction of negative consequences of SAM use.


© 2024 The Authors.

This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and it is not used for commercial purposes.

Original Publication Citation

Shipley, J. L., & Braitman, A. L. (2024). Assessment of simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use and its related consequences and cognitions in college students: A narrative review. Alcohol: Clinical and Experimental Research, 48(2),230-240 .


0000-0002-5203-4486 (Shipley), 0000-0003-2259-1094 (Braitman)