Document Type


Publication Date




Publication Title

Journal of Athletic Training








Context: Individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) have reported decreased global and regional function. Despite the identification of functional deficits in those with CAI, more research is required to determine the extent to which CAI influences the multidimensional profile of health-related quality of life.

Objective: To determine whether global, regional, and psychological health-related outcomes differ between individuals with and without CAI.

Design: Case-control study.

Setting: Laboratory.

Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-five participants with CAI (age = 21.9 ± 2.5 years, height = 170.8 ± 8.6 cm, mass = 69.8.0 ± 11.7 kg) were sex- and limb-matched to 25 healthy participants (age = 22.0 ± 2.1 years, height = 167.4 ± 9.1 cm, mass = 64.8 ± 11.2 kg).

Main Outcome Measure(s): Both groups completed the Disablement in the Physically Active Scale, the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), the FAAM-Sport, the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia-11, and the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire. Dependent variables were scores on these instruments, and the independent variable was group.

Results: Compared with healthy individuals, those with CAI reported decreased function on the Disablement in the Physically Active Scale, FAAM, and FAAM-Sport (P < .001) and increased fear of reinjury on the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia-11 and Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (P < .001). In the CAI group, the FAAM and FAAM-Sport demonstrated a significant relationship (r = 0.774, P < .01).

Conclusions: Individuals with CAI reported decreased function and increased fear of reinjury compared with healthy control participants. Also, within the CAI group, there was a strong relationship between FAAM and FAAM-Sport scores but not between any other instruments. These findings suggest that health-related quality of life should be examined during the rehabilitation process of individuals with CAI.

Original Publication Citation

Houston, M. N., Van Lunen, B. L., & Hoch, M. C. (2014). Health-related quality of life in individuals with chronic ankle instability. Journal of Athletic Training, 49(6), 758-763. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-49.3.54