Date of Award

Summer 2015

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Sociology & Criminal Justice

Committee Director

Randy R. Gainey

Committee Member

Luisa A. Igloria

Committee Member

Elizabeth A. Monk Turner

Committee Member

Xiushi Yang


Based on the Individualism-Collectivism (I-C) perspective and elements of Cullen's social support theory, the present exploratory analysis tested for differences in individualism and collectivism and the potential impact of such differences on attitudes toward criminal justice constructs. Survey participants were Philippine residents, Filipino immigrants to the United States, and US-born Filipino Americans. Initial results suggested minimal variations in individualism and collectivism among the three groups, however, more significant differences were found when respondents were grouped by country of birth, with US-born Filipino Americans exhibiting lower scores in collectivism and, unexpectedly, in individualism. Measures of specific I-C traits, such as independence, familism, bayanihan(community spirit). and pakikipagkapwa tao (concern for others) were found to correlate with attitudes toward a number of criminal justice constructs examined, though not always in the hypothesized direction. Lower scores in collectivist trait measures were indicative of less favorable attitudes toward rehabilitation, restorative justice, and collective efficacy. Higher measured levels of individualism corresponded with more favorable attitudes toward punishment. Discussion included implications for the Filipino American community and avenues for further research.


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