The State of the Region: Hampton Roads 2001
It’s true the region’s per capita income trails national averages, but much of the gap between Hampton Roads and the nation disappears when cost of living differentials are taken into account. Further, the region’s per capita income gap may not be due so much to lagging wage rates, but rather to much lower levels of business income and wealth for Hampton Roads as compared to other regions.
Regional Studies Institute, Old Dominion University, "Part 1: Economic Performance and Per Capita Income: The Inside Story" (2001). State of the Region Reports: Hampton Roads. 146.