The State of the Region: Hampton Roads 2001
Since the early 1990s, the Port has stagnated in terms of the volume of the cargo it handles. This is due almost solely to a decline in bulk cargo (mostly coal). Nonetheless, the Port continues to provide major a economic impetus to the region because it has become much more efficient and competitive over the past decade.
Regional Studies Institute, Old Dominion University, "Part 3: The Decline of Coal and the Rise of Deep-Draft Ships: The Future of the Port" (2001). State of the Region Reports: Hampton Roads. 148.