Date of Award

Spring 5-2022

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


STEM Education & Professional Studies


Occupational and Technical Studies

Committee Director

Philip A. Reed

Committee Member

Mary C. Enderson

Committee Member

Mark M. Diacopoulos


As teachers plan for instruction, technology integration is an important factor in the planning and implementation process. This is become imperative in a virtual learning environment for instructors to be competent (Gregory & Lodge, 2015). Problems exist with integrating technology that aligns with teaching and learning in content areas. Among the many possible factors that contribute to these problems is lack of understanding of technology, lack of support for teachers with technology, everchanging technology tools, inadequate training alignment to instruction, technology training that is not content-specific, lack of support with the integration of technology, pedagogy, and content (Koehler et al., 2013).

This case study with an intervention focused on investigating the essential characteristics of planning and implementing lessons with newly hired secondary mathematics teachers. A mixed methods design was employed to provide triangulation of multiple data points to validate key findings. The TPACK (Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge) framework by Mishra and Koehler (2006) provided a guide for planning and implementing lessons as well as to build teachers' confidence in the integration of technology during instruction. Through planning interviews, survey data, class observations, teacher reflections, field notes, and teacher artifacts of lessons, the researcher examined the essential characteristics of planning and implementing a lesson using the TPACK model. Findings indicated that use of the TPACK model provided support for newly hired mathematics teachers in their incorporation of technology into instruction.

Eight implications emerged from the findings in the study: using the TPACK survey to customize training for teachers by identifying areas of support, using the TPACK model for virtual planning, contextual knowledge in virtual classrooms, comprehending technology, implications of software-focused and use of sample lessons, virtual professional development with TPACK model, level of support with TPACK Planning, and TPACK survey interviews. This research informs practitioners and researchers to understand the complexity of teaching and the importance of providing differentiated support and training based on the needs of new teachers.