Date of Award

Winter 1991

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Urban Services - Urban Education

Committee Director

Charles W. Jackson

Committee Member

Maurice R. Berube

Committee Member

Ulysses V. Spiva

Committee Member

Patrick Tow

Committee Member

Robert Lucking


This ex-post-facto study was designed to examine the effects of varied levels of physical activity participation choices on employees' mood states and job satisfaction. A six (group) x two (sex) x three (times) ANCOVA method analyzed the relationship of three independent variables (group, sex and repeated exercise sessions) to ten dependent psychological measures (seven mood states and three job satisfaction components). Comparisons by group, sex, and time were made to determine whether four treatment groups of male and female employees who made choices to participate in varied levels of physical activity over an eight week period differed significantly from two control groups of male and female employees who made choices to maintain sedentary lifestyles over the same time period.

Self-motivation was the single covariate that significantly correlated with the dependent variables. Controlling for self-motivation the main effect for group participation, sex, and time was analyzed by repeated one-way analysis (ANOVA) and the post hoc analysis of the Neuman-Keuls Multiple Range Test at the p

Significant group main effects were revealed for eight of the ten psychological variables: Tension, Depression, Anger, Vigor, Fatigue, Total Mood Disturbance, external and general job satisfaction; while significant time effects were revealed for three psychological mood states: Depression, Tension, and Total Mood Disturbance Score. None of the three job satisfaction components were associated with the time variable. Overall results indicated that employees who participated in higher levels of physical activity had lower scores for negative psychological states: Tension, Depression, Anger, Fatigue, and Total Mood Disturbance Score. These same groups had higher scores for the positive psychological mood of Vigor and for external and general job satisfaction. Moreover, employees' Tension, Depression, and Total Mood Disturbance scores decreased as the time involved in the exercise participation sessions increased.