Date of Award

Spring 1993

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Program/Concentration

Urban Services - Urban Education

Committee Director

Jack E. Robinson

Committee Member

Maurice R. Berube

Committee Member

Nina Brown

Committee Member

Robert Lucking

Abstract

The meta-analysis compares two popular cooperative learning models, Student-Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD) and Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT), for their relative effectiveness in increasing mathematics achievement of K-12 students. The findings of the available research were integrated to determine both the magnitude and the direction of the effects of the cooperative learning models and effect sizes were calculated. More studies comparing the TGT cooperative learning model with a traditional learning model (81% of the studies) resulted in statistically significant higher gains in mathematics achievement than studies comparing the STAD model with a traditional learning model (51% of the studies). Other measures of relative effectiveness did not clearly support the TGT cooperative learning model as the most effective method for increasing mathematics achievement. Mean effect sizes were compared by goal structure, grade level, length of study, and location.

Students who participated in studies comparing the STAD cooperative learning model with a competitive learning model achieved statistically significant higher gains in mathematics achievement than students who participated in studies comparing the TGT cooperative learning model with a competitive learning model. In studies of 13 weeks or longer, students who were included in the TGT cooperative learning method as compared with a traditional learning method achieved higher gains in mathematics than students who were included in the STAD cooperative learning method. In studies of 13 weeks or less, students who were included in the STAD cooperative learning method as compared with a traditional learning method achieved higher gains in mathematics than students who were included in the TGT cooperative learning model.

When TGT and STAD studies were compared by grade level, the studies at the elementary level resulted in higher gains in mathematics achievement by students in TGT cooperative learning groups when compared with students in individualized learning models. Yet, when compared with students included in a competitive learning model at the elementary level, students involved in STAD cooperative learning groups garnered higher achievement gains in mathematics.

In studies conducted in urban settings, students participating in STAD cooperative learning groups achieved higher gains in mathematics than students participating in TGT cooperative learning groups when compared with traditional learning models.

DOI

10.25777/vhhs-2v41

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