Date of Award

Spring 1984

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Urban Services - Urban Education

Committee Director

Joseph P. Mooney

Committee Member

Wolfgang Pindur

Committee Member

Petra E. Snowden

Committee Member

Leonard C. Sippel

Committee Member

Ulysses V. Spiva


The study examined the effects of Classroom Training, On-the-Job Training, Work Experience, and JobShop programs of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) on the job opportunities, amount of government transfer payments, and criminal activities of the 1982 terminees. The purposes of the program were to determine (1) program cost-effectiveness; (2) which program components operate at higher levels of efficiency; and (3) which selected client characteristics influenced program results.

The evaluation described program success in terms of increased job opportunities and reductions in government transfer payments for CETA participants in the Hampton/Newport News area. Comparisons were made of the employment records, criminal records, and the amount of government transfer payments of CETA terminees and a Control Group of eligible applicants who did not participate in the program.

The CETA program was responsible for an increase in tax contributions and reductions in criminal justice system costs. The cost-benefit analysis indicated that CETA was cost-effective for the sample of 1982 terminees when taxpayer contributions will be paid back in approximately five years. Classroom Training, On-the-Job Training, and JobShop significantly increased the job placement and wage rates of the 1982 terminees. While the effects of Work Experience were positive, the results were not considered substantial. The effects of race, age, education, and sex varied among the different program activities, and securing unsubsidized employment upon termination was the major factor influencing the employment opportunities of the 1982 terminees. Since CETA did reduce the arrest rate of the participants by 50 percent during the first post-program year, and since the crimes committed by the Comparison Group were more serious, evidence does exist that CETA reduced the criminal activities of the terminees selected for the study.