Date of Award

Spring 2005

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Urban Services - Urban Education

Committee Director

Dana Burnett

Committee Member

Spencer R. Baker

Committee Member

Leigh L. Butler


This study identified a significant relationship between Adult Attention Deficit Disorder (Adult ADD) characteristics and the Old Dominion University Freshman Survey Probation Score. The Probation Score is used to identify potential academically at risk freshmen students. Academically at risk is defined as those students with less than a 2.0 GPA. The research found that as the number and severity of Adult ADD characteristics increased, as measured utilizing the Brown Adult ADD Scales, the higher the Probation Score. The study also identified a significant negative relationship between Adult ADD characteristics, as measured utilizing the Brown Adult ADD Scales, and GPA of a college student population. In addition, the research found a higher prevalence of significant Adult ADD characteristics and previously diagnosed ADHD/ADD students than has prior research in a college student population, with minorities underrepresented in both these areas.

These results can be used for the development of specialized counseling for college students with significant Adult ADD characteristics in conjunction with early intervention programs for academically at risk students. Identification and treatment programs, for students with significant characteristics or diagnosed with Adult ADD and who are having academic difficulties, can improve academic quality and retention.


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