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Mammals encountered today in Virginia’s forests and fields include native and nonnative species, feral populations, and free-ranging pets. We examine factors that have influenced Virginia’s terrestrial mammal fauna since the arrival of European colonists in the 1600s and some of the factors that are shaping the fauna today. We look in depth at changes since Handley and Patton’s (1947) first complete monograph on Virginia mammals and augment Linzey’s (1998) book, The Mammals of Virginia. We include current nomenclature, baseline information, and references to comprehensive literature. We discuss some of the current and developing anthropogenic factors that have impacted, or that likely will impact, our native land mammals as well as factors that bode well for many species, especially in areas of conservation of habitat.