Document Type


Publication Date




Publication Title

IEEE Access






Crowdsourcing is an effective technique that allows humans to solve complex problems that are hard to accomplish by automated tools. Some significant challenges in crowdsourcing systems include avoiding security attacks, effective trust management, and ensuring the system’s correctness. Blockchain is a promising technology that can be efficiently exploited to address security and trust issues. The consensus protocol is a core component of a blockchain network through which all the blockchain peers achieve an agreement about the state of the distributed ledger. Therefore, its security, trustworthiness, and correctness have vital importance. This work proposes a Secure and Trustworthy Blockchain-based Crowdsourcing (STBC) consensus protocol to address these challenges. Model checking is an effective and automatic technique based on formal methods that is utilized to ensure the correctness of STBC consensus protocol. The proposed consensus protocol’s formal specification is described using Communicating Sequential Programs (CSP#). Safety, fault tolerance, leader trust, and validators’ trust are important properties for a consensus protocol, which are formally specified through Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) to prevent several security attacks, such as blockchain fork, selfish mining, and invalid block insertion. Process Analysis Toolkit (PAT) is utilized for the formal verification of the proposed consensus protocol.

Original Publication Citation

Afzaal, H., Imran, M., Janjua, M. U., & Gochhayat, S. P. (2022). Formal modeling and verification of a blockchain-based crowdsourcing consensus protocol. IEEE Access, 10, 8163-8183.


0000-0003-0412-7722 (Gochhayat)