Document Type


Publication Date




Publication Title

Procedia Computer Science






The evolution of maritime and shipbuilding supply chains toward digital ecosystems increases operational complexity and needs reliable communication and coordination. As labor and suppliers shift to digital platforms, interconnection, information transparency, and decentralized choices become ubiquitous. In this sense, Industry 4.0 enables "smart digitalization" in these environments. Many applications exist in two distinct but interrelated areas related to shipbuilding design and shipyard operational performance. New digital tools, such as virtual prototypes and augmented reality, begin to be used in the design phases, during the commissioning/quality control activities, and for training workers and crews. An application relates to using Virtual Prototypes and Augmented Reality during all the design and construction phases. Another application relates to the cybersecurity protection of operational networks that support shipbuilding supply chains that ensures the flow of material and labor to the shipyards. This protection requires a holistic approach to evaluate their vulnerability and understand ripple effects. This paper presents the applications of Industry 4.0 for the areas mentioned above. The first case in shipbuilding design is an example of how the virtual prototype of a ship, together with wearable devices enabling augmented reality, can be used for the quality control of the construction of ship systems. For the second case, we propose developing an artificial intelligence-based cybersecurity supply network framework that characterizes and monitors shipbuilding supply networks and determines ripple effects from disruptions caused by cyberattacks. This framework extends a novel risk management framework developed by Diaz and Smith and Smith and Diaz that considers complex tiered networks.


© 2022 The Authors

This is an open access article under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) license.

Original Publication Citation

Diaz, R., Smith, K., Bertagna, S., & Bucci, V. (2023). Digital transformation, applications, and vulnerabilities in maritime and shipbuilding ecosystems. Procedia Computer Science, 217, 1396-1405.


0000-0002-8637-5967 (Diaz), 0000-0002-5026-4501 (Smith)