Document Type


Publication Date




Publication Title

PLoS One






e0288955 (1-27)


Opportunistic routing (OR) can greatly increase transmission reliability and network throughput in wireless ad-hoc networks by taking advantage of the broadcast nature of the wireless medium. However, network congestion is a barrier in the way of OR's performance improvement, and network congestion control is a challenge in OR algorithms, because only the pure physical channel conditions of the links are considered in forwarding decisions. This paper proposes a new method to control network congestion in OR, considering three types of parameters, namely, the backlogged traffic, the traffic flows' Quality of Service (QoS) level, and the channel occupancy rate. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms in the context of OR congestion control in terms of average throughput, end-to-end delay, and Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR). Due to the higher PDR at different traffic loads and different node densities, it can be concluded that the proposed algorithm also improves network scalability, which is very desirable given the recent changes in wireless networks.


© 2023 Parsa et al.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability

Article states: All relevant data are within the paper.

Original Publication Citation

Parsa, A., Moghim, N., & Haghani, S. (2023). Joint congestion and contention avoidance in a scalable QoS-aware opportunistic routing in wireless ad-hoc networks. PLoS One, 18(8), 1-27, Article e0288955.


0000-0002-6338-5505 (Moghim)