Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
It has been suggested that the rate of queuine uptake into cultured human fibroblasts is controlled by phosphorylation levels within the cell. We show that the uptake of queuine is stimulated by activators of protein kinase C (PKC) and inhibitors of protein phosphatase; while inhibitors of PKC, and down-regulation of PKC by chronic exposure to phorbol esters inhibit the uptake of queuine into cultured human fibroblasts. Activators of cAMP- and cGMP-dependent kinases exert no effect on the uptake of queuine into fibroblast cell cultures. These studies suggest that PKC directly supports the activity of the queuine uptake mechanism, and that protein phosphatase activity in the cell acts to reverse this. Regardless of the modulation of uptake rate, the level of intracellular queuine base saturates in 6 h. However, there is still an effect on the incorporation rate of queuine into tRNA of fibroblast cultures even after 24 h. We now show that the incorporation of queuine into tRNA in cultured human fibroblasts by tRNA-guanine ribosyltransferase (TGRase) is also stimulated by activators of PKC and inhibitors of protein phosphatase; while inhibitors of PKC decrease the activity of this enzyme. These studies suggest that PKC supports both the cellular transport of queuine and the activity of TGRase in cultured human fibroblasts, and that protein phosphatase activity in fibroblasts acts to reverse this phenomenon. A kinase-phosphatase control system, that is common to controlling both intracellular signal transduction and many enzyme systems, appears to be controlling the availability of the queuine substrate and the mechanism for its incorporation into tRNA. Since hypomodification of transfer RNA with queuine is commonly observed in undifferentiated, rapidly growing and neoplastically transformed cells, phosphorylation of the queuine modification system may be a critical regulatory mechanism for the modification of tRNA and subsequent control of cell growth and differentiation.
Original Publication Citation
Morris, R. C., Brooks, B. J., Hart, K. L., & Elliott, M. S. (1996). Modulation of queuine uptake and incorporation into trna by protein kinase c and protein phosphatase. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1311(2), 124-132. doi:10.1016/0167-4889(95)00184-0
Morris, Rana C.; Brooks, Bonnie J.; Hart, K. Lenore; and Elliot, Mark S., "Modulation of Queuine Uptake and Incorporation into tRNA by Protein Kinase C and Protein Phosphatase" (1996). Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications. 162.