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134 (1-23)


Carbohydrate-based low molecular weight gelators (LMWGs) exhibit many desirable properties making them useful in various fields including applications as drug delivery carriers. In order to further understand the structural connection to gelation properties, especially the influence of halide substitutions, we have designed and synthesized a series of para-chlorobenzylidene acetal protected D-glucosamine amide derivatives. Fifteen different amides were synthesized, and their self-assembling properties were assessed in multiple organic solvents, as well as mixtures of organic solvents with water. All derivatives were found to be gelators for at least one solvent and majority formed gels in multiple solvents at concentrations lower than 2 wt%. A few derivatives rendered remarkably stable gels in aqueous solutions at concentrations below 0.1 wt%. The benzamide 13 formed gels in water and in EtOH/H2O (v/v 1:2) at 0.36 mg/mL. The gels were characterized using optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy, and the self-assembly mechanism was probed using variable temperature 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Gel extrusion studies using H2O/DMSO gels successfully printed lines of gels on glass slides, which retained viscoelasticity based on rheology. Gels formed by the benzamide 13 were used for encapsulation and the controlled release of chloramphenicol and naproxen, as well as for dye removal for toluidine blue aqueous solutions.


© 2021 by the authors.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Original Publication Citation

Bietsch, J., Olson, M., & Wang, G. (2021). Fine-tuning of molecular structures to generate carbohydrate based super gelators and their applications for drug delivery and dye absorption. Gels, 7(3), 1-23, Article 134.