Date of Award

Spring 2019

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Human Movement Sciences

Committee Director

Justin A. Haegele

Committee Member

Xihe Zhu

Committee Member

Jonna Bobzien


Despite the documented benefits associated with physical activity, adults with visual impairments tend to participate in insufficient physical activity for health promotion. Current literature suggests that barriers to physical activity, or factors that constrain participation in physical activity, may inform the physical activity participation of adults with visual impairments. The purpose of the first study was to develop and validate a brief scale designed to measure the magnitude of barriers to physical activity for use among adults with visual impairments. Expectancy-value theory may offer insight into physical activity by examining adults with visual impairments’ expectancy beliefs and subjective task values surrounding physical activity. The purpose of the second study was to examine the relationship between barriers to physical activity, expectancy-value variables, and physical activity engagement among adults with visual impairments. The Barriers to Physical Activity for Adults with Visual Impairments scale (BPAAVI) was developed in four phases: (a) item development, (b) content validity, (c) exploratory factor analysis, and (d) confirmatory factor analysis. The factor analyses yielded 12 items across three underlying factors (i.e., accessibility barriers, personal barriers, and transportation barriers). The BPAAVI was found to be a valid and reliable measure of barriers to physical activity for adults with visual impairments. Participants in the second study completed the BPAAVI, the Self- and Task-Perception Questionnaire, the International Physical Activity

Questionnaire-Short Form, and a demographic questionnaire. Associations between variables were explored via correlation and regression analyses. Positive relationships were found between expectancy-value variables and physical activity engagement, while barriers to physical activity and physical activity engagement were negatively correlated. A significant amount of variance (20.30%) in physical activity engagement was explained by the model. Intrinsic or interest value and expectancy beliefs each emerged as significant predictors of physical activity engagement, which suggests that expectancy-value theory may have some utility for investigating the physical activity engagement of individuals with visual impairments.


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