Date of Award

Spring 2007

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Education (MSEd)


Human Movement Sciences


Athletic Training

Committee Director

Bonnie L. Van Lunen

Committee Member

James A. Ornate

Committee Member

Martha L. Walker

Committee Member

Nelson Cortes


The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of three different foot orthoses on plantar pressure under the first metatarsophalangeal joint during standing and slow running. Twenty physically active participants, 12 males (19.7±1.3 years, 181.5±6.3cm, 83.6±12.3kg) and 8 females (20.8±1.5 years, 172.7±11.2cm, 69.9±14.2kg) with navicular drop greater than 10mm, no history of surgery to the lower extremity, and no history of pain or injury to the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint in the past six months volunteered for the study. Each subject performed standing and slow running tasks with four different orthosis conditions: no orthosis, metatarsal dome, U-shaped orthosis, and donut-shaped orthosis. The Pedar in-shoe pressure measurement system was used to examine the effects of each orthosis peak and mean pressure under four areas of the foot: rearfoot, lateral forefoot, medial forefoot, and the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Data were collected using Pedar-X Expert software and exported into an Excel spreadsheet for analysis. Separate 2X4X4 repeated measures ANOVAs were used to analyze peak plantar pressure and mean plantar pressure. The metatarsal dome significantly decreased peak running pressure compared to no orthosis and the donut-shaped orthosis, as well as mean standing and running pressure compared to all orthosis conditions. The U-shaped orthosis significantly reduced mean running pressure compared to no orthosis. The donut-shaped orthosis significantly increased peak and mean standing pressure compared to all orthosis conditions; it similarly significantly increased peak and mean running pressure compared to the metatarsal dome and U-shaped orthosis. Findings suggest that the metatarsal dome is most effective in reducing both peak and mean plantar pressure during standing and slow running. Further research is needed to examine the application of these results to other foot types as well as symptomatic individuals.


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