Date of Award

Spring 2007

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Education (MSEd)


Human Movement Sciences


Athletic Training

Committee Director

James Onate

Committee Member

Bonnie Van Lunen

Committee Member

Darin Padua

Committee Member

Nelson Cortes

Call Number for Print

Special Collections LD4331.E44 J66 2007


The use of visual instruction could be a valuable tool in prevention strategies for anterior cruciate ligament injuries, especially in large group settings, through the alterations of jump-landing motion patterns and impact forces. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of two visual modeling cues in altering jump-landing motion patterns, as measured by the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS), and impact forces, vertical ground reaction force (PVGRF) and peak posterior ground reaction force (PPGRF). Seventy-three physically active individuals (age= 20.89 ± 1.72 years; height = 172 ± 9.87 cm; mass= 68.43 ± 15.97 kg) were baseline tested performing three trials of a box-drop landing task. Of these, 51 subjects (7 males; 44 females; age= 20.80 ± 1.70 years; height= 171.37 ± 9.10 cm; mass= 65.22 ± 13.44 kg), with poor landing mechanics (LESS scores ≥ 6) were randomly assigned to each modeling group (global modeling [G], specific modeling [S], and control[C]), 17 subjects per group. Data were collected during a box-drop landing task for a pretest [P] (3 trials). Subjects received modeling cues (global, specific, or no instructions), performed the same task during the immediate posttest [I] (3 trials), returned one-week later for a retention test [R] (3 trials) and a transfer test [T] of a running stop-jump task (3 trials), both with no additional instructions. Three separate 3 (instruction) x 4 (testing session) repeated measures ANOVA were conducted at a significance level of p≤0.05 set a priori. Tukey Post Hoc HSD was used to analyze specific differences in the data. Effect size was determined using Cohen's d test. For PVGRF, we found a main effect for testing session, with [T] demonstrating higher values than [I] and [R]. A main effect was found for the higher [T] values compared to the [PJ, [I], [RJ for PPGRF. Interactions were found for LESS scores, with [SJ and [GJ showing significant decreases for [I] and [R] compared to [P] and to the [C] for [I]; [G] demonstrated significant decreases in [R] compared to [C]. The global instructional cue may be effective in improving landing mechanics in individuals in need of intervention, but not for impact forces. Future research is needed to evaluate the long term effects of this instructional technique with varied age groups, along with utilizing the stop-jump task as a more athletically demanding task.


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