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International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health








According to the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines, meeting daily recommendations for physical activity, sleep, and screen time is important for obtaining optimal health benefits. This cross-sectional observational study aimed to examine (a) the prevalence of meeting the movement guidelines; and (b) the associations between meeting the guidelines and selected outcomes in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Data from the 2018–2019 National Survey for Children’s Health dataset was used. Participants were adolescents (10–17 years) with ADHD and without other chronic conditions. Outcomes were flourishing, school engagement, and body weight status. Exposures of interest were adherence to the movement guidelines. The frequency of the participants’ adherence to the guidelines was estimated, and regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between adherence to the guidelines and outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders. Complete observations were available for 634 adolescents with ADHD. Overall, 46.8% of the participants met at least one movement guideline, but only 6.5% met all three. The number of guidelines met had a significant and positive association with flourishing and school engagement (β = 0.21/0.17, ptrend < 0.001). Compared with meeting all three guidelines, significant associations with lower flourishing levels were found in participants who met none, sleep only, and sedentary time only (β = −0.38–−0.13, p < 0.05). Similar findings were identified in the school engagement outcome. Adherence to the guidelines was, however, not significantly associated with the odds of being overweight or obese. Collectively, the findings suggest the movement guidelines may be appropriate for extending to adolescents with ADHD and there is a need to increase adherence to the guidelines in this group.


© 2022 by the authors.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Original Publication Citation

Wang, W., Haegele, J. A., Wu, Y., & Li, C. (2022). Meeting the 24-hour movement guidelines and outcomes in adolescents with ADHD: A cross-sectional observational study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(4), Article 2132.


0000-0002-8580-4782 (Haegele)