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Publication Title

Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities


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This study examined how students with orthopedic impairments experienced strategies identified in the literature to support ‘inclusion’. An interpretative phenomenological analysis research approach was used, and six students with orthopedic impairments (age 10–14 years) served as participants. Data sources were written prompts, semi-structured, audiotaped interviews, and reflective interview notes. Based on thematic data analysis, four themes were constructed: “It’s kind of embarrassing”: experiences with support; “I don’t want to be different”: equipment, activity, and rule modifications; “I like to be a part of the conversation”: autonomy and choice in PE; and “I would rather be like the other students”: discussing disability. The experiences portrayed through these themes highlighted the differential effects of these explicated strategies, where each strategy contributed to feelings of inclusion, as well as marginalization among participants. As such, the findings indicated that ‘inclusive’ strategies should not be considered as blanket recommendations; instead, attempts to promote ‘inclusion’ of students with disabilities should start with a reflexive look at the unique needs of each individual student.


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Data Availability

Article states: Due to privacy restrictions, data are not available beyond the direct quotations included within this manuscript.

Original Publication Citation

Holland, K., Haegele, J. A., Zhu, X., & Bobzien, J. (2022). “Everybody wants to be included”: Experiences with ‘inclusive’ strategies in physical education. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities.


0000-0002-8580-4782 (Haegele), 0000-0002-5048-3464 (Zhu)