Document Type


Publication Date




Publication Title







045004 (12 pp.)


Introduction. Current collagen fiber manufacturing methods for biomedical applications, such as electrospinning and extrusion, have had limited success in clinical translation, partially due to scalability, cost, and complexity challenges. Here we explore an alternative, simplified and scalable collagen fiber formation method, termed 'pneumatospinning,' to generate submicron collagen fibers from benign solvents. Methods and results. Clinical grade type I atelocollagen from calf corium was electrospun or pneumatospun as sheets of aligned and isotropic fibrous scaffolds. Following crosslinking with genipin, the collagen scaffolds were stable in media for over a month. Pneumatospun collagen samples were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, circular dichroism, mechanical testing, and scanning electron microscopy showed consistent fiber size and no deleterious chemical changes to the collagen were detected. Pneumatospun collagen had significantly higher tensile strength relative to electrospun collagen, with both processed from acetic acid. Stem cells cultured on pneumatospun collagen showed robust cell attachment and high cytocompatibility. Using DMSO as a solvent, collagen was further co-pneumatospun with poly(d, l-lactide) to produce a blended microfibrous biomaterial. Conclusions. Collagen microfibers are shown for the first time to be formed using pneumatospinning, which can be collected as anisotropic or isotropic fibrous grafts. Pneumatospun collagen can be made with higher output, lower cost and less complexity relative to electrospinning. As a robust and rapid method of collagen microfiber synthesis, this manufacturing method has many applications in medical device manufacturing, including those benefiting from anisotropic microstructures, such as ligament, tendon and nerve repair, or for applying microfibrous collagen-based coatings to other materials.


Article is open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence


0000-0002-2010-2165 (Maghdouri-White)

Original Publication Citation

Polk, S., Sori, N., Thayer, N., Kemper, N., Maghdouri-White, Y., Bulysheva, A. A., & Francis, M. P. (2018). Pneumatospinning of collagen microfibers from benign solvents. Biofabrication, 10(4), 045004. doi:10.1088/1758-5090/aad7d0