Document Type


Publication Date




Publication Title

Journal of Athletic Training








Context: People with chronic ankle instability (CAI) exhibit less weight-bearing dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) and less knee flexion during landing than people with stable ankles. Examining the relationship between dorsiflexion ROM and landing biomechanics may identify a modifiable factor associated with altered kinematics and kinetics during landing tasks.

Objective: To examine the relationship between weight-bearing dorsiflexion ROM and single-legged landing biomechanics in persons with CAI.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: Laboratory.

Patients or Other Participants: Fifteen physically active persons with CAI (5 men, 10 women; age = 21.9 ± 2.1 years, height = 168.7 ± 9.0 cm, mass = 69.4 ± 13.3 kg) participated.

Intervention(s): Participants performed dorsiflexion ROM and single-legged landings from a 40-cm height. Sagittal-plane kinematics of the lower extremity and ground reaction forces (GRFs) were captured during landing.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Static dorsiflexion was measured using the weight-bearing–lunge test. Kinematics of the ankle, knee, and hip were observed at initial contact, maximum angle, and sagittal displacement. Sagittal displacements of the ankle, knee, and hip were summed to examine overall sagittal displacement. Kinetic variables were maximum posterior and vertical GRFs normalized to body weight. We used Pearson product moment correlations to evaluate the relationships between dorsiflexion ROM and landing biomechanics. Correlations (r) were interpreted as weak (0.00–0.40), moderate (0.41–0.69), or strong (0.70–1.00). The coefficient of determination (r2) was used to determine the amount of explained variance among variables.

Results: Static dorsiflexion ROM was moderately correlated with maximum dorsiflexion (r = 0.49, r2 = 0.24), ankle displacement (r = 0.47, r2 = 0.22), and total displacement (r = 0.67, r2 = 0.45) during landing. Dorsiflexion ROM measured statically and during landing demonstrated moderate to strong correlations with maximum knee (r = 0.69–0.74, r2 = 0.47–0.55) and hip (r = 0.50–0.64, r2 = 0.25–0.40) flexion, hip (r = 0.53–0.55, r2 = 0.28–0.30) and knee (r = 0.53–0.70, r2 = 0.28–0.49) displacement, and vertical GRF (−0.47– −0.50, r2 = 0.22–0.25).

Conclusions: Dorsiflexion ROM was moderately to strongly related to sagittal-plane kinematics and maximum vertical GRF during single-legged landing in persons with CAI. Persons with less dorsiflexion ROM demonstrated a more erect landing posture and greater GRF.


"Journal of Athletic Training and The Athletic Training Education Journal are both open access journals.

Consistent with the Budapest open access initiative (BOAI), all articles are free for users to access, read, download, and print. Information can be used providing that the source is appropriately acknowledged and/or referenced. An institution may post an author's manuscript in a digital repository. Any other posting on servers or replication of any content can be done only after obtaining permission from the NATA's publication office."

Publisher's version available at:


Weinhandl (0000-0001-9881-3904)

Original Publication Citation

Hoch, M. C., Farwell, K. E., Gaven, S. L., & Weinhandl, J. T. (2015). Weight-bearing dorsiflexion range of motion and landing biomechanics in individuals with chronic ankle instability. J Athl Train, 50(8), 833-839. doi:10.4085/1062-6050-50.5.07