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Publication Title

Critical Criminology






Recent analyses of transgender homicide victims find that the news media often uses improper terminology, delegitimizes, and victim blames them. These analyses, while insightful, are limited as they have largely analyzed cases involving trans women and trans feminine individuals. The present study employs a mixed-method approach to analyze news media articles (N = 88) published in U.S. online news media outlets about 17 gender non-conforming victims killed between 2012 and 2022. We found that most articles did not delegitimize or victim blame. However, we find (1) victim blaming occurred when reporting on cases of officer-involved shootings, (2) certain victims receive more coverage and support, (3) confusion about terminology when discussing the gender of victims, and (4) episodic framing of transphobic violence. Implications and potential areas of research and practice are provided to address, challenge, increase, and improve news media reporting of these victims.


© 2023 The Authors.

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0000-0001-7725-5288 (Avalos)

Original Publication Citation

Avalos, S., Jackey, H., & Wickel, I. (2023). A mixed-method analysis of the news media framing of gender non-conforming victims of homicide in the U.S. from 2012 to 2022. Critical Criminology, 31(4), 913-931.