Document Type


Publication Date




Publication Title

International Journal of Designs for Learning








This design case examines what program leaders learned from failures in the design of a program of authentic learning about teaching diverse audiences through educational outreach. The program was initiated and then redesigned to develop the teaching and communication skills of graduate students from a wide range of backgrounds by engaging them in authentic experiences with middle school teachers and students. Analysis of post-program data revealed seven design failures related to the lack of upfront analysis to inform the program design. Each design failure was detailed through a fishbone diagram method to identify the corre- sponding contributing factors. The failures in this design case reinforce the need for upfront learner analysis and contextual analysis. A participatory design was also suggested from the post-program data analysis. An instructional design model was recommended for continuous program redesign.


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0).

Copyright © 2023 by the International Journal of Designs for Learning, a publication of the Association of Educational Communications and Technology. (AECT). Permission to make digital or hard copies of portions of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that the copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page in print or the first screen in digital media. Copyrights for components of this work owned by others than IJDL or AECT must be honored. Abstracting with credit is permitted. The IJDL site and its metadata are licensed under CC BY-NC-ND.

Original Publication Citation

Yang, M., & Harbor, J. (2023). Authentic learning design failures: The need for learner and contextual analysis and participatory design. International Journal of Designs for Learning, 14(1), 88-105.